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SAT考試語法中錯位修飾該如何應對?
2020-01-03 16:12   作者:新航道   閱讀量:

       SAT考試語法中錯位修飾該如何應對?有些句子看似簡單,但從句意修飾來看,則有歧義或者存在謬論。讓我們通過以下真題和練習來剖析一下:


      1.2010.1 / S6. 2


  The chair of the school board announced a plan to build two new elementary schools during an interview with a local news reporter.


  (A) The chair of the school board announced a plan to build two new elementary schools during an interview with a local news reporter.


  (B) The chair of the school board announced that two new elementary schools were planned to be built during an interview with a local news reporter.


  (C) The chair of the school board, during an interview with a local news reporter, announced a plan building two new elementary schools.


  (D) During an interview with a local news reporter, the chair of the school board announcing a plan to build two new elementary schools.


  (E) During an interview with a local news reporter, the chair of the school board announced a plan to build two new elementary schools.


  這道題目的A選項(即NO ERROR選項)從我們常見的出發點比如時態,主謂,搭配,或者簡潔方面來看,似乎沒有問題,以致于同學在倉促的考試時間中不假思索地選擇它。當然也有同學考慮到B選項用被動語態違背了SAT語法通常情況下的簡潔原則 ,C選項則是犯了plan doing的搭配錯誤,而D選項是整個句子缺乏動詞(Sentence fragment), 而E選項似乎和A選項沒什么差別,只是換了下順序而已。但是恰恰是這順序的區別能夠幫助我們發現問題。細心的同學則會注意到,其實A選項的表達方式是有歧義的,可以理解為:校董主席宣布在和當地記者見面的時候建兩個學校。這個從邏輯上來看當然是有誤的,兩個學校豈能在開會的瞬時就能建成?因此必須將時間狀態提前,句子的意思才夠恰當:在和當地記者的見面會上,校董主席宣布計劃將建兩座新學校。正確選項為E.


  2. 2011. 1/ S10. 1


  When I asked which of the children was his daughter, he pointed to a little girl feeding a duck in a blue dress.


  (A) feeding a duck in a blue dress


  (B) feeding a duck and was in a blue dress


  (C) feeding a duck, she was in a blue dress


  (D) in a blue dress who was feeding a duck


  (E) in a blue dress, she was feeding a duck


  當同學們看見這句的題干(a duck in a blue dress),不禁會哈哈大笑起來,試想鴨子穿著一件藍裙子,豈不是喧賓奪主了?因此我們可以輕易發現正確選項為D,解釋為:他指出那個穿著藍裙子正在喂鴨子的小女孩兒是他的女兒。原題中的in a blue dress放錯位置了,引起邏輯的謬誤。值得解釋的是,B選項表達麻煩,而且連詞前后的動詞不平行,C和E分別都是RUN-ON SENTENCE,因此都是錯誤的。


  3. 2009.1/ S 10. 10


  When we were cleaning the garage, my sister and I found the old soccer ball in a dark corner we used to play with when we were young.


  (A) the old soccer ball in a dark corner we used to play with when were young.


  (B) in a dark corner from when we were young the old soccer ball we played with


  (C) in a dark corner the old soccer ball we used to play with when we were young


  (D) the old soccer ball in a dark corner, we used to play with it when we were young


  (E) the old soccer ball, having played with it when we were young, in a dark corner


  有了前兩題的經驗,我們不難發現,原題題干中的錯誤了吧,句子的原意不難理解,應為,當我們清理車庫的時候,我的姐姐和我在角落里發現了我們兒時玩的足球。但是原句的錯位修飾(corner played)導致了句意變成了“我們兒時玩的角落”(play with corner),試想角落要怎么去玩呢?實在謬以千里。正確答案為C選項,補充一下,B和E句子結構混亂羅嗦,主謂邏輯不分,完全違背SAT語法的規則;而D是RUN-ON SENTENCE,考試的時候這類選項應快速跳過,直奔核心選項。


  4. 2008.1/ S7. 3


  Chad wore his hat just as his favorite old movie stars did when perched on the back of his head.


  (A) Chad wore his hat just as his favorite old movie stars did when perched on the back of his head.


  (B) Chad wore his hat perched on the back of his head, just as his favorite old movie stars did.


  (C) Chad’s favorite old movie stars wore their hat perched on the back of their heads, Chad did too.


  (D) Perched on the back of his head, Chad wore his hat just as his favorite old move stars did.


  (E) Just as his favorite old movie stars did, perching their hats on the backs of their head, as did Chad.


  這題的關鍵點在于perch這個動作的邏輯主語是誰。Perch 有“棲息于,坐落”的意思,這里即為簡單的“置于”的意思。原句中,perched的邏輯主語為Chad, 即解釋為當Chad 戴在他的后腦勺上,人豈能站在自己的頭上?同學們不禁又笑了起來。我們自然得知,應該是帽子戴在頭上,perched之前修飾的應該是hat, 符合此要求的只有B選項(wore his hat perched on the back of his head). C選項則是RUN-ON SENTENCE, D選項犯了和A選項同樣的錯誤,E選項完全是病句,主謂不清。


  5. 06.5 /S6. 9


  Professor Brand, who enjoys welcoming international students to her home on Thanksgiving, served the traditional turkey dressed in Pilgrim clothing.


  (A) served the traditional turkey dressed in Pilgrim clothing


  (B) Served the traditional turkey, dressing in Pilgrim clothing


  (C) Serving the traditional turkey and dressed in Pilgrim clothing


  (D) Dressed in Pilgrim clothing to serve the traditional turkey


  (E) Dressed in Pilgrim clothing and the traditional turkey was served


  原句的意思再次讓我們啞然失笑,火雞怎么穿上了朝圣服裝了呢?和我們之前提到的“鴨子穿著藍裙子”出題思路如出一轍,修飾錯了位。一般而言,穿衣服的主語是人,即文中的Professor Brand, 他在感恩節穿著香客服歡迎各國學生,為他們端上火雞(serve在此處表示“提供,端上”,而并非為火雞服務)。因此正確選項為D. B選項的dressing用法錯誤,應為dressed, C選項沒有動詞,E選項引入被動態,前后不工整。


       以上就是“錯位修飾”的真題分析,更多托福考試干貨敬請關注新航道SAT考試頻道

  


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